Neoliberalismo y educación superior en Chile: una mirada crítica al rol desempeñado por el Banco Mundial y los “Chicago Boys”

Oscar Espinoza

Resumo


El artículo analiza los principales lineamientos que dieron vida a las políticas educacionales del sector terciario, amparadas en el modelo económico neoliberal promovido bajo la dictadura de Pinochet desde comienzos de la década de 1980. Se examina, además, la influencia ejercida por las agencias de financiamiento internacional (especialmente, el Banco Mundial) y los “Chicago Boys” en la implementación de dichas políticas en Chile. El estudio identifica las principales limitaciones de la teoría del capital humano y del análisis de las tasas de retorno utilizadas por el Banco Mundial. A modo de conclusión se plantea que las políticas neoliberales han tenido un impacto negativo en el desarrollo y proyección del sector universitario estatal dado que se ha restringido significativamente el gasto fiscal y se ha privilegiado el crecimiento del sector privado por la vía de los subsidios estatales.


Palavras-chave


Banco Mundial. Chile. Educación Superior. Gratuidad. Modelo Neoliberal. Privatización. Rol del Estado.

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Referências


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24115/S2446-6220201733378p.93-114

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